Genemed Synthesis Inc.
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Peptide Modifications & Conjugation
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Home PageOnline Product Catalog > Custom Peptides & Small Molecule > Peptide Modifications & Conjugation

GSI has prepared modified peptides that can be fluorescently labeled, biotinylated, phophorylated, acetylated, or have one or more disulfides (see available peptide modifications). GSI has prepared >100,000 peptides for scientists all over the world. GSI products and services have been referenced in several hundreds peer reviewed publications. GSI peptide chemists can help you make peptides tailored to your specific requirements from mg to grams and purities approaching 98-100%.  
We can also conjugate peptides to any carrier proteins for the purpose of making antibodies or couple them to Agarose to prepare affinity columns.
If you need a custom peptide, please contact us with your needs and take advantage of our expertise. We will be happy to provide a cost estimates and turn around time. Use on-line price quote request form below.
Custom Peptide Modifications-General Price Guidelines
Research Scale
Code No.
Amidation (C-Terminal)
Anilide (C-Terminal)
Dinitrobenzoylation (DNP)
Fatty acid
Fluorescence/Dye Labeling
Code No.
Lissamine Rhodammine
Protein Carrier Conjugation
Code No.
KLH (Keyhole Limpet hemosyanin)
BSA (Bovine serum albumin)
Multiple Antigenic Peptide (Map) System
Code No.
Asymmetric 4 branches
Symmetric 4 branches
Asymmetric 8 branches
Symmetric 8 branches
Protein primary structure and posttranslational modifications
Protein biosynthesis | Peptide bond | Proteolysis | Racemization | N-O acyl shift
Acetylation | Formylation | Myristoylation | Pyroglutamate | methylation | glycation | myristoylation (Gly) | carbamylation
Amidation | Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) | O-methylation | glypiation | ubiquitination | sumoylation
Methylation | Acetylation | Acylation | Hydroxylation | Ubiquitination | SUMOylation | Desmosine | deamination and oxidation to aldehyde| O-glycosylation | imine formation | glycation | carbamylation
Disulfide bond | Prenylation | Palmitoylation
Phosphorylation | Glycosylation
Phosphorylation | Sulfation | porphyrin ring linkage | flavin linkage | GFP prosthetic group (Thr-Tyr-Gly sequence) formation | Lysine tyrosine quinone (LTQ) formation | Topaquinone (TPQ) formation
Deamidation | Glycosylation
Succinimide formation
Carboxylation | polyglutamylation | polyglycylation
Citrullination | Methylation
Common Posttranslational Modifications
In general, polypeptides are unbranched polymers, so their primary structure can often be specified by the sequence of amino acids along their backbone. However, proteins can become cross-linked, most commonly by disulfide bonds, and the primary structure also requires specifying the cross-linking atoms, e.g., specifying the cysteines involved in the protein’s disulfide bonds. Other crosslinks include desmosine... 
The chiral centers of a polypeptide chain can undergo racemization. In particular, the L-amino acids normally found in proteins can spontaneously isomerize at the Cα atom to form D-amino acids, which cannot be cleaved by most proteases
Finally, the protein can undergo a variety of posttranslational modifications, which are briefly summarized here. 

The N-terminal amino group of a polypeptide can be modified covalently, e.g., acetylation − C( = O) − CH3   
N-terminal acetylation
The positive charge on the N-terminal amino group may be eliminated by changing it to an acetyl group (N-terminal blocking).   
Formylation − C( = O)H  
The N-terminal methionine usually found after translation has an N-terminus blocked with a formyl group. This formyl group (and sometimes the methionine residue itself, if followed by Gly or Ser) is removed by the enzyme deformylase.   
Formation of pyroglutamate from an N-terminal glutamine
An N-terminal glutamine can attack itself, forming a cyclic pyroglutamate group.   
Similar to acetylation. Instead of a simple methyl group, the myristoyl group has a tail of 14 hydrophobic carbons, which make it ideal for anchoring proteins to cellular membranes.   
The C-terminal carboxylate group of a polypeptide can also be modified, e.g., 
C-terminal amidation
The C-terminus can also be blocked (thus, neutralizing its negative charge) by amidation.   

Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) attachment  
Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol is a large, hydrophobic phospholipid prosthetic group that achors proteins to cellular membranes. It is attached to the polypeptide C-terminus through an amide linkage that then connects to ethanolamine, thence to sundry sugars and finally to the phosphatidylinositol lipid moiety.   
Finally, the peptide side chains can also be modified covalently, e.g.,
Aside from cleavage, phosphorylation is perhaps the most important chemical modification of proteins. A phosphate group can be attached to the sidechain hydroxyl group of serine, threonine and tyrosine residues, adding a negative charge at that site and producing an unnatural amino acid. Such reactions are catalyzed by kinases and the reverse reaction is catalyzed by phosphorylases. The phosphorylated tyrosines are often used as "handles" by which proteins can bind to one another, whereas phosphorylation of Ser/Thr often induces conformational changes, presumably because of the introduced negative charge. The effects of phosphorylating Ser/Thr can sometimes be simulated by mutating the Ser/Thr residue to glutamate.   
A catch-all name for a set of very common and very heterogeneous chemical modifications. Sugar moieties can be attached to the sidechain hydroxyl groups of Ser/Thr or to the sidechain amide groups of Asn. Such attachments can serve many functions, ranging from increasing solubility to complex recognition. All glycosylation can be blocked with certain inhibitors, such as tunicamycin.  
Deamidation (succinimide formation) 
In this modification, an asparagine or aspartate side chain attacks the following peptide bond, forming a symmetrical succinimide intermediate. Hydrolysis of the intermediate produces either asparate or the β-amino acid, iso(Asp). For asparagine, either product results in the loss of the amide group, hence "deamidation".  
Proline residues may be hydroxylates at either of two atoms, as can lysine (at one atom). Hydroxyproline is a critical component of collagen, which becomes unstable upon its loss. The hydroxylation reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme that requires ascorbic acid (vitamin C), deficiencies in which lead to many connective-tissue diseases such as scurvy.  
Several protein residues can be methylated, most notably the positive groups of lysine and arginine. Methylation at these sites is used to regulate the binding of proteins to nucleic acids. Lysine residues can be singly, doubly and even triply methylated. Methylation does not alter the positive charge on the side chain, however.  
Acetylation of the lysine amino groups is chemically analogous to the acetylation of the N-terminus. Functionally, however, the acetylation of lysine residues is used to regulate the binding of proteins to nucleic acids. The cancellation of the positive charge on the lysine weakens the electrostatic attraction for the (negatively charged) nucleic acids.  
Tyrosines may become sulfated on their Oη atom. Somewhat unusually, this modification occurs in the Golgi apparatus, not in the endoplasmic reticulum. Similar to phosphorylated tyrosines, sulfated tyrosines are used for specific recognition, e.g., in chemokine receptors on the cell surface. As with phosphorylation, sulfation adds a negative charge to a previously neutral site.

Prenylation and palmitoylation  
The hydrophobic isoprene (e.g., farnesyl, geranyl, and geranylgeranyl groups) and palmitoyl groups may be added to the Sγ atom of cysteine residues to anchor proteins to cellular membranes. Unlike the GPI and myritoyl anchors, these groups are not necessarily added at the termini.
A relatively rare modification that adds an extra carboxylate group (and, hence, a double negative charge) to a glutamate side chain, producing a Gla residue. This is used to strengthen the binding to "hard" metal ions such as calcium.  
The large ADP-ribosyl group can be transferred to several types of side chains within proteins, with heterogeneous effects. This modification is a target for the powerful toxins of disparate bacteria, e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Bordetella pertussis.
Various full-length, folded proteins can be attached at their C-termini to the sidechain ammonium groups of lysines of other proteins. Ubiquitin is the most common of these, and usually signals that the ubiquitin-tagged protein should be degraded.
Most of the polypeptide modifications listed above occur post-translationally, i.e., after the protein has been synthesized on the ribosome, typically occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum, a subcellular organelle of the eukaryotic cell.
Many other chemical reactions (e.g., cyanylation) have been applied to proteins by chemists, although they are not found in biological systems.

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